What keeps a society together is the ideals to which its members are committed. Societies that are passionately committed to an ideal with courage and heroism are bound to achieve victory. They are so committed that the ideal to which they are committed keeps them alive.

What keeps a society together is the ideals to which its members are committed. Societies that are passionately committed to an ideal with courage and heroism are bound to achieve victory. They are so committed that the ideal to which they are committed keeps them alive.


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Philosophy in ancient Greece acquired a systematic unity with Aristotle. A logical method was adopted to unite different disciplines. With Aristotle, philosophy gained a rational narrative through prose with logical and substantive consistency. Philosophers prior to Aristotle, pre-Socratics in particular, expressed philosophy in the form of poetry. Aristotle’s philosophy was a philosophy of solid objects; it carried the status of spatial objects “here and now” to rational concept by way [...]

About Art

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Modern civilization is built on four foundations: Sports, Science, Art, and Philosophy. Sports deals with the discipline of movement, Science with concepts and terminology specific to science, Art with images, and Philosophy with concepts. Artistic endeavor has existed in all cultures since the earliest periods in history, but art gained self-consciousness in Ancient Greece. This was no accident because Ancient Greece was also where people gained consciousness of philosophy, or [...]


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“Art emerges and develops where there is a yearning for the ideal,” says A. Tarkovsky, and adds, “Art is a symbol of this world that is intertwined with the spiritual reality hidden from us by a utilitarian practice.” Even though the idea is a highly controversial concept, the idea in terms of art represents, at its most basic, “unity” and “integrity.” It expresses the “common essence” or “common form” that holds [...]

The Problem of Akhlaq in Sufism

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“Religion is morality in practice. Knowledge is but an instrument.” Lütfi Filiz Any treatise on akhlaq (morality/character) and Sufism (Tasawwuf) needs to make references to specialized literature and a set of concepts. The concepts of Sufism have both a philosophical and a poetic character, meaning that philosophical concepts alone would not be sufficient to explain Sufism. If philosophical concepts are like “day and night” to the mind, and mystic concepts [...]

An Interview on “Artificial Intelligence”

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The Age of Pythagoras is Coming to an End, and We Are Entering the Age of Plato... Ayşe Acar: Regarding Artificial Intelligence, one of the most popular topics of discussion is Technological Singularity. This refers to the fear of a super Artificial Intelligence overtaking the world in the future, and ending humanity. This is not what I understand by the term “technological singularity.” I argue that singularity may arise in [...]

Anatolian Enlightenment and the Republic – Part 2

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The Turkish revolution is not a revolution that took place under normal conditions; it is a society gaining self-awareness after emerging victorious from the War of Independence. In other words, enlightenment here was realized through action. You tell people about the idea of enlightenment in order to motivate them to take an action.But the peoples of Anatolia gained this by themselves, emerging victorious from a war of survival by relying [...]

Anatolian Enlightenment and the Republic – Part 1

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Following the age of Enlightenment, following the movements of the Renaissance and Enlightenment, the individual and individualism gained significant ground in the European world. The problematic of individualism was balanced by socialism, and the individual, or being an individual served as the main principle of permanent modernity. The three basic principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity were born out of the Enlightenment, and their reflection in society, their reception [...]

On the Science of Art

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Until Immanuel Kant –with the possible exception of Aristotle in antiquity– art was mostly described as an awe-inspiring product of imagination that bypasses the reason, and treated this way in the literature. After Kant, however, Hegel in particular said –along with his criticism of Kant– “No, art is not merely a product of our imagination.” Imagination can create certain products by taking inputs from the objects in the outside [...]

The Dogmatic Scientific Attitude

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Intellect under Tutelage Science as a Religion Creativity is at an Impasse, as the Age of Communication Provides Access to “Data,” Rather Than to “Knowledge” The Difference between the Enlightened and the Intellectual The Brain also Gets Hungry The Physics of an Age Affects the Forms of the Consciousness of the Age Questioning the Type of Our Consciousness through the Theory of Relativity [...]

It Is No Longer Possible to Engage in Philosophy without Understanding the Paradigm Shift in Physics

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Physics Providing Guidance to the Intellectual World Time is Not External to Objects but a Part of Their Existence How Do You Comprehend Motion Where Immobility Does Not Exist? If the Speed of Light is the Highest Possible Speed, What is the Speed of Light Squared? From Moving Objects to Movement that Appears as Object Space is not a Place [...]

It Is No Longer Possible to Practice Philosophy without Physics or Physics without Philosophy

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The Impossibility of Asking “What Is Empty Space?” Understanding That We Don’t Know and Cannot Think Is Transcendental God a Non-Comprehensible God? The Difference between the Topics of Philosophy and the Subject Matter of Philosophy The Necessity of Creating Ether for a Universe Devoid of a Physical Foundation Being Determined by the Opposite Is a Reference System Based on Our Senses is Sufficient [...]

The Implausibly Difficult Task of Comprehending the Theory of Relativity

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Tardyons, Luxons, and Beyond The Leap Space Six Main Points of the Theory Imagining the Leap Space Everything, without Exception, is on the Move! Using E=mc2 to Practice Philosophy Faster Than the Speed of Light? A Concept without a System is Undefined Rational Time Became Real Time We Should Say Equivalence Instead of Equation We Need Intuitive Imagination [...]


Aydınlanma Sorunu ve Değerler / The Problem of Enlightenment and Values
Metin Bobaroğlu

Enlightenment is the name of a conscious effort undertaken in the process of liberation. In each society, there are enlightened people who are able to transcend their own selves, their hearts burning with a desire for freedom and concern for all humanity, fighting against ignorance, oppression, and bigotry, and they are like flowers in a field of crops. Thus, enlightenment is the highest life style.

Language: Turkish


Simgesel Düşünme / Symbolic Thinking
Metin Bobaroğlu

Symbolic thinking is a form of thinking that transcends reality, and allows searching for the ideal, beyond existing reality. The ideal is limited by concepts, and symbols offer new opportunities to overcome these limits. Symbols are like an umbilical cord; their function is to improve understanding rather than explanation, and they serve in exploration and discovery processes rather than in those of knowledge. Every consciousness is a seeker of meaning in its relationship with symbols.

Language: Turkish