People who give birth to themselves are the subjects that make history. Their existence is not merely for their individual lives, as oftentimes, they internalize and embrace a humanistic ideal with such passion that they disregard their individual lives. Revolutions happen when this passion meets societal will.

People who give birth to themselves are the subjects that make history. Their existence is not merely for their individual lives, as oftentimes, they internalize and embrace a humanistic ideal with such passion that they disregard their individual lives. Revolutions happen when this passion meets societal will.


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Philosophy in ancient Greece acquired a systematic unity with Aristotle. A logical method was adopted to unite different disciplines. With Aristotle, philosophy gained a rational narrative through prose with logical and substantive consistency. Philosophers prior to Aristotle, pre-Socratics in particular, expressed philosophy in the form of poetry. Aristotle’s philosophy was a philosophy of solid objects; it carried the status of spatial objects “here and now” to rational concept by way [...]

About Art

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Modern civilization is built on four foundations: Sports, Science, Art, and Philosophy. Sports deals with the discipline of movement, Science with concepts and terminology specific to science, Art with images, and Philosophy with concepts. Artistic endeavor has existed in all cultures since the earliest periods in history, but art gained self-consciousness in Ancient Greece. This was no accident because Ancient Greece was also where people gained consciousness of philosophy, or [...]


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“Art emerges and develops where there is a yearning for the ideal,” says A. Tarkovsky, and adds, “Art is a symbol of this world that is intertwined with the spiritual reality hidden from us by a utilitarian practice.” Even though the idea is a highly controversial concept, the idea in terms of art represents, at its most basic, “unity” and “integrity.” It expresses the “common essence” or “common form” that holds [...]

The Problem of Akhlaq in Sufism

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“Religion is morality in practice. Knowledge is but an instrument.” Lütfi Filiz Any treatise on akhlaq (morality/character) and Sufism (Tasawwuf) needs to make references to specialized literature and a set of concepts. The concepts of Sufism have both a philosophical and a poetic character, meaning that philosophical concepts alone would not be sufficient to explain Sufism. If philosophical concepts are like “day and night” to the mind, and mystic concepts [...]

Comparative Eastern and Western Aesthetics

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The Distinction between Aesthetics and Fine Art What Did Hegel Mean When He Said “Art Is a Thing of the Past”? Evolution of Craft into Art A Work of Art Can Be Critiqued by a Critic Trained in Aesthetics The Historical Development of Systematic Philosophy Why Is It Assumed That Philosophy First Began in Greece? Philosophy Is an Evolution from Mythos to Logos [...]

An Interview on “Artificial Intelligence”

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The Age of Pythagoras is Coming to an End, and We Are Entering the Age of Plato... Ayşe Acar: Regarding Artificial Intelligence, one of the most popular topics of discussion is Technological Singularity. This refers to the fear of a super Artificial Intelligence overtaking the world in the future, and ending humanity. This is not what I understand by the term “technological singularity.” I argue that singularity may arise in [...]

Anatolian Enlightenment and the Republic – Part 2

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The Turkish revolution is not a revolution that took place under normal conditions; it is a society gaining self-awareness after emerging victorious from the War of Independence. In other words, enlightenment here was realized through action. You tell people about the idea of enlightenment in order to motivate them to take an action.But the peoples of Anatolia gained this by themselves, emerging victorious from a war of survival by relying [...]

Anatolian Enlightenment and the Republic – Part 1

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Following the age of Enlightenment, following the movements of the Renaissance and Enlightenment, the individual and individualism gained significant ground in the European world. The problematic of individualism was balanced by socialism, and the individual, or being an individual served as the main principle of permanent modernity. The three basic principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity were born out of the Enlightenment, and their reflection in society, their reception [...]

An Important Barrier to Making Conscious Use of Consciousness: The Religion of Science

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Doing Philosophy on the Basis of Physics Theories Is There Certainty in Science? Does Enlightenment Flow from Society to Individual? Changing the Habits That Organize Consciousness Facing Up to the Dogma of Scientific Religion The Difference between Faith and Belief The Intellectual Impasse that Hegel Resolved Types of Reason According to How They Are Used The Use of Consciousness to Make [...]

Is “Enlightenment” Possible Without Understanding the Paradigm-Shifting Theory of Relativity?

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As Times Change, So Do the Contents of Concepts Kant's Distinction between Phenomena and Noumena The East Started But Failed to Complete; the West Went Slow and Steady What is Not Related is Not Defined The Theory of Objective Relativity is the Most Revolutionary Theory of Our Age Another Look at Kant’s Phenomena through This Understanding How Did Hegel Overcome the Dilemma? [...]

The Dogmatic Scientific Attitude

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Intellect under Tutelage Science as a Religion Creativity is at an Impasse, as the Age of Communication Provides Access to “Data,” Rather Than to “Knowledge” The Difference between the Enlightened and the Intellectual The Brain also Gets Hungry The Physics of an Age Affects the Forms of the Consciousness of the Age Questioning the Type of Our Consciousness through the Theory of Relativity [...]

It Is No Longer Possible to Engage in Philosophy without Understanding the Paradigm Shift in Physics

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Physics Providing Guidance to the Intellectual World Time is Not External to Objects but a Part of Their Existence How Do You Comprehend Motion Where Immobility Does Not Exist? If the Speed of Light is the Highest Possible Speed, What is the Speed of Light Squared? From Moving Objects to Movement that Appears as Object Space is not a Place [...]


Aydınlanma Sorunu ve Değerler / The Problem of Enlightenment and Values
Metin Bobaroğlu

Enlightenment is the name of a conscious effort undertaken in the process of liberation. In each society, there are enlightened people who are able to transcend their own selves, their hearts burning with a desire for freedom and concern for all humanity, fighting against ignorance, oppression, and bigotry, and they are like flowers in a field of crops. Thus, enlightenment is the highest life style.

Language: Turkish


Simgesel Düşünme / Symbolic Thinking
Metin Bobaroğlu

Symbolic thinking is a form of thinking that transcends reality, and allows searching for the ideal, beyond existing reality. The ideal is limited by concepts, and symbols offer new opportunities to overcome these limits. Symbols are like an umbilical cord; their function is to improve understanding rather than explanation, and they serve in exploration and discovery processes rather than in those of knowledge. Every consciousness is a seeker of meaning in its relationship with symbols.

Language: Turkish